The Lime Science curriculum, in partnership with CUSP Science, provides pupils with the foundations for understanding the world through the specific disciplines of biology, chemistry and physics.  The Science curriculum draws upon prior learning, wherever content is taught.  The science units are filled with evidence-led practice and enhanced with retrieval units to ensure long-term retention of foundational knowledge. Through building up a body of key foundational knowledge and concepts, pupils are encouraged to recognise the power of rational explanation and develop a sense of excitement and curiosity about natural phenomena.  Pupils are encouraged to understand how science can be used to explain what is occurring, predict how things will behave, and analyse causes.  

 In Key Stage 1, pupils study the seasons and develop an early conceptual understanding of how day becomes night. An understanding of change over time connects to the study of Plants, including trees. Contrasting that study, pupils learn about Animals, including humans. Non-examples of plants are used to contrast the features of an animal. Pupils are introduced to identifying and classifying materials. As pupils progress through KS1, new knowledge is integrated with pre-existing understanding. For example, in Year 2, the study of Living things and their habitats and Uses of everyday materials, engages pupils to draw upon their knowledge of Animals, including humans as well as Plants, and the study of Materials. New substantive knowledge is constructed and made sense of through Working and Thinking scientifically tasks. 

In key stage 2 Science, substantive knowledge is always present and acts as a precursor for pupils’ understanding. This will enable them to successfully apply disciplinary knowledge. In KS2 we introduce disciplinary scientific terms, including: 

  • variable
  • independent, variable
  • dependent, variable
  • controlled variable.

These give structure to working and thinking scientifically tasks in relation to the substantive knowledge taught in that specific study.  

In lower KS2, the unit on Rocks is studied and connected with prior knowledge from ‘Everyday materials’ in KS1. A study of Animals, including humans is built upon from KS1 and contrasts the physical features with the functions they perform, including the skeleton and muscles. Forces and magnets are introduced and connect with KS1 materials, including twisting, bending and squashing. The abstract concept of Light is made concrete through knowing about light sources and shadows. Plants are studied to develop a more sophisticated understanding of their parts and functions, including pollination. A study of Living things and their habitats pays close attention to classification. Animals, plants and environments are connected in this study with a summary focusing on positive and negative change. Electricity is introduced. Substantive knowledge is taught so that pupils acquire understanding about electrical sources, safety and components of a single loop circuit.  Animals, including humans focuses on the sequence of digestion, from the mouth to excretion. States of matter and Sound are taught using knowledge of the particle theory.  

 In Upper Key Stage 2, In the study of Properties and changes of materials, it is important that pupils reuse and draw upon their understanding of states of matter. Earth in Space develops the conceptual understanding of our place in the universe. A study of Forces sophisticates the substantive knowledge acquired in KS1 and LKS2. New content, including air resistance and water resistance is studied. Living things and their habitats focuses on differences in life cycles of living things and how they reproduce. More complex animals are studied, including invertebrates such as Myriapods and Echinodermata (starfish and Sea urchins) as well as Arthropods such as Crustacea, Arachnids, and Insects. Light is revisited and taught with advanced substantive knowledge. The study of Animals, including humans enables pupils to add new knowledge to their mental models of biological systems. Circulation, the components of blood and the mechanism of the heart is connected to healthy living through diet and exercise. Electricity is enhanced with an advanced study of electrical circuits.  





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